,

. , , , , , - , , . . XVIII . (Rome de l'Isle, 1783, 1784; D'Andrada, 1792; Delamethrie, 1792). XIX . XX . , (Hatiy, 1801, 1806, 1817, 1822; Bernhardi, 1810; Bournon, 1815, 1817; Cohen, 1822; Levy, 1837; Rose, 1853, 1856, 1857